Ocular Manifestations of Obstructive Sleep Apnea
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a sleep disorder resulting in periods of breathing cessation secondary to upper airway collapse during sleep. The effects of OSA on a patient’s cardiovascular and metabolic health are well known, though less recognized are OSA’s associations with ophthalmic disease. The effects of OSA on the eye and ocular adnexa include floppy eyelid syndrome (FES), chronic eye irritation, glaucoma, nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), papilledema, keratoconus, central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR), retinal vein occlusion (RVO), and complications with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) injections. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder with a slew of ocular side effects, some of which are sight threatening, and many of which merit referral to an eye care provider.