Ingrown Toenail Management

  • Asma Ghafoor, OMS-IV Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft. Lauderdale, FL
  • Hamza Paracha, MD International American University College of Medicine, Vieux Fort, Saint Lucia, West Indies
  • Zoie Goldstein, DO Nova Southeastern University College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ft. Lauderdale, FL


Ingrown toenails are a common condition in general medicine and dermatology, and they occur when the nail curves inward and pierces the nail fold. Symptoms include pain in the affected toe, erythema and edema. The diagnosis is made clinically and, if left untreated, ingrown toenails can lead to infections and even cellulitis and osteomyelitis. Conservative treatments involve clipping on the spicule and topical antibiotics. However, the mainstay of treatment is matricectomy to reduce the recurrence rate. The risk of ingrown toenail development can be reduced by wearing proper footwear, keeping toenails cut straight and overall foot hygiene. Ingrown toenails can affect various patient populations but are more prevalent in males, young adolescents and pregnant patients. Risk factors include obesity, diabetes, improper toenail clipping and improper footwear. This review explores the clinical manifestations of ingrown toenails, along with their diagnosis and treatment, providing a concise review for physicians to accurately identify and effectively treat patients with ingrown toenails or their resultant complications.

How to Cite
Asma Ghafoor, OMS-IV, Hamza Paracha, MD, and Zoie Goldstein, DO. “Ingrown Toenail Management”. Osteopathic Family Physician, Vol. 13, no. 3, May 2021, pp. 31-34, doi:10.33181/13035.
Review Articles