Heel Pain With an Osteopathic Component

  • Jack Italiano, III, DO, RT (R) University of Florida, Gainesville, FL
  • Adam Bitterman, DO Northwell Health, Great Neck, NY


Family medicine is a field that is exposed to a large amount of musculoskeletal complaints. More than 100 million people present with musculoskeletal disease annually in the United States. This translates to over $320B in healthcare costs per year. Due to these astonishing numbers, it is imperative that family medicine physicians, who typically make up the first line of management, properly identify the many causes of musculoskeletal pain. Heel pain is a common complaint of patients seeking professional care. Due to the complex anatomy of the foot, identification and proper management can be challenging and thus prolong care. The present article reviews the anatomic structure, clinical evaluation, differential diagnoses and diverse treatment with an osteopathic approach surrounding the foot and ankle.

How to Cite
Italiano, J., and A. Bitterman. “Heel Pain With an Osteopathic Component”. Osteopathic Family Physician, Vol. 13, no. 4, July 2021, pp. 29–40, https://ofpjournal.com/index.php/ofp/article/view/758.
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