Exploring Self-Care Strategies in Individuals With Low Literacy, Type 2 Diabetes and Euglycemia

  • Sharon L. Casapulla, EdD, MPH Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University Athens, OH
  • Joy Dugan, MPH, DHSc, PA-C2 College of Osteopathic Medicine and College of Education and Health Sciences, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA
  • Emily Reinig, DO College of Education and Health Sciences, Touro University California, Vallejo, CA
  • Jay H. Shubrook, DO, FACOFP College of Osteopathic Medicine, Touro University California Vallejo, CA
  • Shannon E. Nicks, PhD, MPH College of Health Sciences and Professions, Ohio University, Athens, OH

Abstract

Purpose
This qualitative study utilizes the health belief model to explore how individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus and low diabetes numeracy achieve and maintain good glycemic control.

Methods
Participants (n=10) participated in semi-structured interviews and completed the Patient Diabetes Knowledge Questionnaire, the Health Belief Questionnaire, and the Social Support Assessment Tool.

Results
Results indicate that participants had low levels of diabetes knowledge, high levels of perceived social support and strong self-efficacy related to type 2 diabetes management, despite low numeracy. Self-designed routines mitigated potential educational, socioeconomic, and knowledge barriers. Self-efficacy and social support were strong protective factors.

Conclusions
The healthcare team can help high-risk patients manage their type 2 diabetes by improving self-efficacy and identifying social support. Diabetes self-management education should encourage activities that promote higher levels of self-reflection and critical thinking.

Published
2021-07-07
How to Cite
Casapulla, S., J. Dugan, E. Reinig, J. Shubrook, and S. Nicks. “Exploring Self-Care Strategies in Individuals With Low Literacy, Type 2 Diabetes and Euglycemia”. Osteopathic Family Physician, Vol. 13, no. 4, July 2021, pp. 10–18, https://ofpjournal.com/index.php/ofp/article/view/759.
Section
Research Article